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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 203-210

Thyroid hormones in male reproduction and infertility


1 College of Science, University of Sumer, Iraq
2 Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Malaysia
3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed Alahmar
College of Science, University of Sumer
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.268135

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Thyroid hormones have been well studied for its relevance to male reproduction in the last few decades. They are considered as essential regulators of male reproductive functions and play vital roles in male gonadal developments. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism both affect testicular functions and influence neuroendocrine regulations over reproductive functions via the crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The alterations in the male reproductive hormonal milieu by thyroid hormones may lead to reduced testosterone levels and deterioration of semen quality. However, there are very few reports on the direct effects of thyroid disorders upon testicular functions and semen quality. This article aims to review the available literature to present a concise updated concept on the regulation of male reproductive functions by the thyroid hormones, and the possible mechanism by which thyroid dysfunctions affects testicular functions.


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