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META-ANALYSIS
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-10

Association between pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain and the risk of preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis


1 Midwifery Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
2 Department of Public Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Indonesia
3 Departement of Obstetry and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Ilham Aldika Akbar
Departement of Obstetry and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.306431

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Objective: To analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and gestational weight gain throughout pregnancy with the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This was a systematic review-meta analysis of literature collected from three e-databases: Scopus, PubMed, and Science Direct. Quality assessment was measured with the Effective Public Health Practice Project methods. Meta-analysis was done by calculating the fixed and random-effects of odds ratio (OR) for each BMI category and gestational weight gain as compared with the incidence of preeclampsia. Results: Overweight was associated with a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.152, 95% CI 1.363-3.400; P=0.001). Obesity was also associated with a noticeably increased risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.856, 95% CI 1.755-4.649; P<0.001). Meanwhile, underweight was associated with a significantly reduced risk of preeclampsia (OR=0.639, 95% CI 0.500-0.817; P<0.001) when compared with normal BMI. Pregnant women who gained weight below the standard throughout pregnancy was a protective factor from preeclampsia (OR=0.813, 95% CI 0.610-1.083; P=0.157) whereas pregnant women who gained weight above the standard had almost doubled risk of preeclampsia (OR=1.850, 95% CI 1.377-2.485; P<0.001). Conclusions: The result of this study affirms the role of overweight-obesity pre-pregnancy, and gestational weight gain above the standard during pregnancy as significant risk factors for developing preeclampsia.


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