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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 195-202

Male infertility: A scoping review of prevalence, causes and treatments


Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), CHARUSAT Campus, Off. Nadiad-Petlad Highway, PIN 388421, Dist. Anand, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Niraj Y Vyas
Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), CHARUSAT Campus, Off. Nadiad-Petlad Highway, PIN 388421, Dist. Anand, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.326717

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Male factor infertility has now become a major health disorder, affecting human reproduction and developing worldwide as a serious medical and social issue. It causes trauma, emotional instability, and mental stress in the affected couples. In nearly half of the analyzed cases, male-associated factors are the major contributors. The present review outlines a wide range of factors responsible for male infertility. We performed an in-depth literature review of the global index of infertility by using data from World Health Organization’s website, Elsevier’s, PubMed and Scopus databases as well as journals. The quality and quantity of semen, male hormonal imbalance, genetic deterioration, and reactive oxygen species are the fundamental causes of male factor infertility. In addition, air quality, water quality, noise pollution, lifestyle changes, improper diet consumption, malnutrition, exposure to chemicals and toxins, smoking habits, drug abuses, major diseases, and medications are also contributors to infertility issues that can temporarily or permanently influence male reproductive system. We also reviewed the prevalence of male infertility in different countries.


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