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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July 2021
Volume 10 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 145-194

Online since Tuesday, July 20, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections and the emerging role of bitter taste receptors: A scoping review Highly accessed article p. 145
Menizibeya O Welcome, Abraham Jeremiah, Dennis O Allagoa, Senol Dane, Vladimir A Pereverzev
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321122  
Reproductive tract infections pose an immense public health concern worldwide as over 600 million new cases are recorded annually along with several complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, and neonatal death. Despite improved understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenic invasion, the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections is yet to be completely understood. Recent data has suggested a critical role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Here, we review the literature on current etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections and the role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role of microbiota disorder of the reproductive tract in reproductive tract infections. Several bacterial, protozoan parasitic, helminthic parasitic and viral pathogens have been identified as causative agents of reproductive tract infections. These pathogens subvert host defenses and activate specific architectural units of the uroepithelium such as Toll-like receptors, which recognize conserved motifs on the pathogens. The activated Toll-like receptors mediate downstream signaling, stimulating nuclear factor-κB, which in turn activates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This pathway is also associated with recruitment of immunocytes to the site of aggression and release of proteinases, which drive tissue damage in the reproductive tract. Defects in detection of pathogenic components by the bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract may play a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. This review provides important information for identification of novel frontiers for the treatment of reproductive tract infections.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Genetic association of rs7754840 and rs7756992 polymorphisms in the CDKAL1 gene and gestational diabetes mellitus in selected Filipino pregnant women Highly accessed article p. 155
Maria Ruth B. Pineda-Cortel, Karlo Baybayan, Peter Louie Bello, Latiffa Lois Camenforte, Stefany Jane Ching, Kathleen Conti, Jeremiah Jose Ignacio, Jiovanni Diaz, Adrian Villavieja, Jefferyl Kae Pandac, Emilyn U Alejandro
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321123  
Objective: To investigate the possible association between rs7754840 and rs7756992 polymorphisms of CDKAL1 gene and susceptibility to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a Filipino pregnant population. Methods: A total of 101 patients with GDM and 99 women without GDM were included. Two CDKAL1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely rs7754840 and rs7756992, were genotyped by using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Mann-Whitney U test, median and interquartile range were used to describe physical and biochemical characteristics. The differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the target genetic variants among the two groups of participants were assessed by using Chi-square test. Conformity to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested prior to conducting further analysis. Multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate the effects of the genotype models on GDM development. Results: There was no observed correlation between the genotypes of the rs7754840 SNP and oral glucose tolerance test parameters. Consequently, there was no significant association between genetic models of the rs7754840 SNP and GDM risk (additive OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.82-2.50, P=0.21; dominant OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.57-2.59, P=0.62; recessive OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.86-3.09, P=0.13). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest no association between CDKAL1 gene variant rs7754840 and GDM development in Filipino pregnant women. Further studies with a larger population should be performed to validate our findings.
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Proposed age-stratified reference intervals of FSH derived from normozoospermic men p. 162
Emily-Jane Waller, Jason Conceicao, Phillip Matson, John L Yovich
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321188  
Objective: To demonstrate that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in men rises with age, and to explore FSH reference intervals of age-related partitioning. Methods: Men aged 20-50 years (n=1 190) underwent semen analysis according to World Health Organization (2010) methods. Serum was frozen prior to measurement of FSH by using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur® XP immunoassay system. FSH central 95% intervals after logarithmic transformation based on age were derived from 1 037 normozoospermic men. These were then applied to oligozoospermic and azoospermic men. Men producing azoospermic semen samples were further classified as having non-obstructive azoospermia by clinical diagnostic criteria, including genetic analysis and surgical exploration. Results: Serum FSH in normozoospermic men increased with age (P<0.05), and reference intervals were determined with 10-year brackets: 21-30 years [(1.0-8.2) IU/L], 31-40 years [(1.4-9.5) IU/L], 41-50 years [(1.9-12.0) IU/L]. The proportion of oligozoospermic men with normal FSH concentrations was less than the normozoospermic men, which in turn was lower among azoospermic men (both P<0.01). The azoospermic men were further broken down according to the nature of the azoospermia as either obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, and 86.4% (38/44) men with non-obstructive azoospermia had elevated serum FSH concentrations whereas only 6.7% (1/15) men with obstructive azoospermia had high FSH levels, and this was significantly different (P<0.01). Conclusions: FSH concentrations increase in men between 20-50 years, and clinical interpretation of serum FSH results in men must be made by using age-based reference intervals.
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Taxifolin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative ovarian damage in rats p. 168
Sevil Kiremitli, Tunay Kiremitli, Umit Nayki, Nesrin Yilmaz, Can Turkler, Kemal Dinc, Renad Mammadov, Gulce Naz Yazici, Mine Gulaboglu, Nihal Cetin
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321124  
Objective: To investigate preventive effects of taxifolin on ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative ovarian damage in rats. Methods: A total of 18 female Wistar albino rats were randomly and equally divided into three groups: the sham group, the ovarian ischemia reperfusion group, and the 50 mg/kg taxifolin+ovarian ischemia reperfusion group. The ovarian ischemia reperfusion and taxifolin+ovarian ischemia reperfusion groups were exposed to ischemia for 2 h and then followed by two-hour reperfusion protocol. Biochemical and histopathologic examinations were performed on the extracted ovaries. Results: Levels of malondialdehyde and cyclooxygenase-2 were increased, while reduced-glutathione and cyclooxygenase-1 were decreased in the ovarian ischemia reperfusion group. However, these values were reversed in the taxifolin+ovarian ischemia reperfusion group. Similarly, the number of primordial and developing follicules decreased in the ovarian ischemia reperfusion group, while they were within normal range in the taxifolin+ovarian ischemia reperfusion group. Conclusions: Ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to oxidative stress-related ovarian injury, and taxifolin may be useful for protecting ovarian tissue from such injury.
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Descriptive histomorphological evaluation of the testis and caudal epididymis following treatment with rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) and sutherlandia (Lessertia frutescens) in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 176
Temidayo S Omolaoye, Stefan S du Plessis
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321125  
Objective: To evaluate the testis and the cauda epididymis after treating both healthy and diabetic rats with rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), and sutherlandia (Lessertia frutescens), respectively. Methods: Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups (n=10 per group). Fifty rats were randomized to receive tap water, 0.1 M citrate buffer, 2.0% fermented rooibos, 4.0% fermented honeybush, or 0.2% unfermented sutherlandia. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 45 mg/kg in 40 rats. The diabetic rats were randomized to receive tap water, 2.0% fermented rooibos, 4.0% fermented honeybush, or 0.2% unfermented sutherlandia. Rats were sacrificed after seven weeks of diabetic induction. Blood was collected for hormonal assay, while the testes and caudal epididymis were retrieved for histomorphological evaluations. Results: Diabetic rats treated with 2.0% fermented rooibos exhibited a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) versus the vehicle group (P=0.002), and a 3.6% decrease compared to the diabetic control group (P>0.05). Diabetic rats treated with honeybush or sutherlandia showed 23.6% and 15.4% decrease in FPG when compared to the diabetic control group, respectively (both P>0.05). The diabetic control rats had a significant decrease in the percentage of histologically normal seminiferous tubules compared to the control group (P=0.049). There was 21.0%, 14.0%, and 5.4% rise in the percentage of normal seminiferous tubules in diabetic rats receiving rooibos, honeybush or sutherlandia, respectively, compared to the diabetic control group. The infusion control groups (rooibos, honeybush and sutherlandia) showed normal seminiferous tubules, presence of spermatozoa in the epididymal lumen, and had normal overall architecture. Both testicular and epididymal morphology were altered in the diabetic control group, but these disruptions were mildly ameliorated by rooibos, honeybush, and sutherlandia. Conclusions: The detrimental effects of diabetes on the histomorphological architecture of the testis and epididymis are mildly ameliorated by the infusions (2.0% fermented rooibos, 4.0% fermented honeybush, and 0.2% unfermented sutherlandia).
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Oral supplementation of selenium improves post-thaw sperm quality in Saanen bucks p. 187
Kambulu Lukusa, John Kabuba
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.321126  
Objective: To determine the effect of oral selenium supplementation and semen collection methods on various post thaw semen quality parameters in Saanen bucks. Methods: Sixteen healthy bucks were divided into two equal groups (n=8 each). The treatment group received selenium at 10-day intervals for three months. Sperm kinematic parameters, morphological parameters, mitochondrial membrane potential, plasma membrane functionality, and sperm DNA integrity were evaluated weekly pre and post-cryopreservation. Results: The mean percentages of the morphological abnormalities were significantly lower in the selenium-supplemented samples when semen was collected by using artificial vagina method (P<0.05). Proximal droplet defects were significantly lower in the selenium supplementation group when semen was collected by electro-ejaculation (P<0.05). Post-thaw sperm parameters such as total motility and progressive motility were significantly higher when semen was obtained by artificial vagina in the selenium-supplemented bucks compared to the electro-ejaculation and the control groups (P<0.05). The sperm kinematic parameters such as curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, and amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly higher when semen was collected by artificial vagina in the selenium-treated bucks (P<0.05). The percentages of sperm with intact and functional plasma membrane and functional mitochondria were significantly higher in the selenium-supplemented samples collected with artificial vagina compared to the electro-ejaculation method and the control groups (P<0.05). In vitro fertilizing potential was significantly higher in the selenium-supplemented samples collected with artificial vagina compared to the electro-ejaculation method and the control groups, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oral supplementation of selenium and artificial vagina semen collection improve post thaw sperm quality parameters of Saanen buck.
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