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   2017| September  | Volume 6 | Issue 5  
    Online since October 10, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antifertility properties of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract as a contraceptive agent: Preliminary study of sperm proteomic
Irfan Yunianto, Nurul Ain Kamar Bashah, Mahanem Mat Noor
September 2017, 6(5):212-216
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215931  
Objective: To investigate the antifertility properties of Centella asiatica L. ethanolic extract and identify the sperm proteomic changes in treated male rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control group (n=16) received distilled water and treatment group (n=16) which received 300 mg/kg of Centella asiatica L. extract for 42 d. After the treatment period, the number of implantation sites was recorded and the sperm proteomic changes were analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis. In addition, the expression of protein spots was quantified by MALDI-TOF analysis. Results: Centella asiatica L. extract resulted in low number of implantation sites in the treatment group (100.00±2.82) compared to the control group (183.00±2.14). The percentage of infertile male rats in the treatment group was higher (43.75%) compared to the control group (18.75%). Proteomic analysis showed the expression of protein spots identified in the treatment group decreased with 234 spots compared to the control group with 282 spots. Conclusions: The results revealed that there was antifertility activity in the male rats with the administration of Centella asiatica L. ethanol extract and the identified proteins could provide understanding on the adverse effect of Centella asiatica in male reproductive system.
  4,630 500 4
The methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) improves sexual parameters in high fat diet-induced obese sexually sluggish rats
Patrick Brice Deeh Defo, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Georges Romeo Bonsou Fozin, François Xavier Kemka, Albert Kamanyi, Pierre Kamtchouing, Pierre Watcho
September 2017, 6(5):202-211
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215930  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of the methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (G. tesmannii) on sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level in obese rats. Methods: A total of 193 male Wistar rats were fed either with palm oil diet (n=185) or standard diet (n=8) for 16 wk. At the end of this feeding period, 90 obese rats were selected and randomly divided into 18 groups of five rats each and treated with distilled water (10 mL/kg), vitamin E (75 mg/ kg), clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg) or methanolic extract of G. tessmannii (55, 110 or 220 mg/ kg) for 7, 21 or 56 d. At the end of each treatment period, sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level were evaluated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA for repeated measures followed by post-hoc Tukey HSD (P<0.05) for multiple comparisons. Results: Feeding of rats for 16 wk with palm oil diet significantly damaged sperm parameters. The methanolic extract of G. tesmannii improved sperm viability, motility and normality after 21 or 56 d of treatment. The sperm normality increased significantly in rats treated with the methanolic extract of G. tesmannii for 7 (110 mg/kg, P<0.01) and 56 d (110 and 220 mg/kg, P<0.05) compared to control group. Triglycerids, total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol levels were lower in rats treated with the plant extract for 56 d. G. tesmannii also significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol and testosterone levels in the plasma after 56 d of treatment. Conclusions: The methanolic extract of G. tesmannii can improve sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level in obese rats. These findings may justify the folkloric use of G. tesmannii as a reproductive performance enhancer.
  3,483 364 10
An online infertility clinical decision support system
Fabio Diniz de Souza
September 2017, 6(5):221-225
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215933  
Objective: To explore some possibilities of computer applications in medicine, and to discuss an online infertility clinical decision support system. Methods: Retrospective data were obtained from 52 couples, and then entered into the online tool. Both its results and the initial diagnoses obtained by the treating physicians were compared with the final diagnoses established by laparoscopy and other diagnostic tests (semen analysis, hormone analysis, endometrial biopsy, ultrasound and hysteroscopy). The initial hypothesis of the research was that the online tool's output was statistically associated with the final diagnoses. In order to verify that hypothesis, a chi-square (χ2) test with Yates' correction for continuity (P<0.05) was performed to verify if the online tool's and the doctor's diagnoses were statistically associated with the final diagnoses. Results: Four etiological factors were present in more than 50% of the couples (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, and endometriosis). The statistical results confirmed the research hypothesis for eight out of the nine etiological factors (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, cervical, male, vaginal, psychosomatic, and endometriosis; P<0.05). Since there were no cases related to the immune factor in the sample, further clinical data are necessary in order to assess the online tool's performance for that factor. Conclusions: The online tool tends to present more false-positives than false-negatives, whereas the expert physician tends to present more false-negatives than false-positives. Therefore, the online tool and the doctor seem to complement each other. Finally, the obtained results suggest that the infertility online tool discussed herein might be a useful research and instructional tool.
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Activity of transaminase enzyme and testosterone hormone in blood of Awassi rams during different season
Souhayla Oneeis Hussain, KreemIwaid AL Badry, Sadeq Jaafer Zalzala, Ahmed M M Zakri
September 2017, 6(5):217-220
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215932  
Objective: To monitor the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) enzymes and testosterone hormone in months and seasons of Iraq. Methods: In this experiment, 20 (2.0-3.5 years old) Iraqi Awassi rams were used which were housed in semi opened shade. Blood samples (2-3 mL) were collected once a week for over period 12 mo. AST and ALT activities were measured by using colorimetric method, and testesterone analysis was performed with an automatic analyzer. Results: The activities of both AST and ALT enzymes were increased significantly (P<0.05) during summer, on monthly basis, June showed the significantly highest value (P<0.05). The present study revealed that testosterone in autumn and summer was recorded significantly highest (P<0.05) in comparison with other seasons and on monthly basis the significant (P<0.05) highest level of testosterone was found between September and August months. Conclusions: AST and ALT enzymes are the highest during summer, and on monthly basis they are the highest in June, while testosterone level is recorded highest in autumn season, and on monthly basis November shows the highest value.
  3,122 275 2
Anion gap as bio-diagnostic index in prediction of dystocia, retained placenta and delayed uterine involution of Baladi goat (Field study)
Mohamed El-Raey, Heba M El-Khaiat
September 2017, 6(5):231-237
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215935  
Objective: To assess the anion gap (AG) validity in prediction the goat's fertility before parturition. Methods: This study was carried out on two groups (20/20, aged 4–6 years and weighted 30–43 kg) of pluriparous pregnant Baladi goats. Animals were subjected to clinical examination, blood sampling to assess serum biochemical parameters in correlation with utrasonographic assessment of uterine horn involution (UTI) and placental dropping time after kidding. Unpaired student t–test was used to detect the significance of differences (P<0.05). Correlation coefficient was used to study the relationships among the different assessed parameters, analysis (r) was assigned at P<0.05 using the same statistics program. Results: Results revealed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.05) between normally and abnormally parturated goats concerning Cl-, K+, Na+, P, Mg2+, Total/Ca2+, albumin, glucose and AG. Goats suffered from dystocia having high levels of HCO3-, cortisol and lactate. Additionally, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between normally and abnormally parturated goat does regarding the process of UTI starting from 3rd to 10th wk after parturition. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference (P<0.05) between normally and abnormally parturated goat does concerning their placental dropping time; where, distressed/ abnormally parturated goat having the longest time. Furthermore, there were highly strong correlation coefficient between Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, glucose, albumin, AG and corrected AG concentrations during goat's prepartum period and UTI, placental dropping time. Conclusions: Reporting serum bio-chemical changes and AG during goat's prepartum period could be used as diagnostic tool to judge the normality of parturition process, placental dropping, UTI and genital health, in other word, could be used as predictor for goat's fertility prior to parturition.
  2,709 234 -
Genetic characterization of FSH beta-subunit gene and its association with buffalo fertility
Ahmed S.A. Sosa, Karima Gh M Mahmoud, Mohamed M.M. Kandiel, Hazem A.A. Eldebaky, Mahmoud F Nawito, Mahmoud E.A. Abou El-Roos
September 2017, 6(5):193-196
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215928  
Objective: To study genetic variation in buffalo follicle stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHB) gene and its association with fertility. Methods: In this experimental study, blood samples were collected by standard methods using EDTA anticoagulant and transrectal ultrasound examination was conducted on fertile (n=74) and infertile buffaloes with a history of anestrum (n=30) or repeat breeding (n=12). The genomic DNA was extracted for PCR followed by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. DNA sequencing was performed for the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHB gene. Results: The study results showed that there was genetic polymorphism with two different single strand conformation polymorphism patterns, AA and AB. The former pattern was associated with fertility in Egyptian buffaloes. Pair wise alignment of the two patterns sequences revealed that FSHB pattern II (AB) has C nucleotide insertion as SNP at the site of 208 bp of sequenced fragment. Conclusions: FSHB is polymorphic in the Egyptian buffaloes, suggesting its practicability as a candidate marker for female fertility.
  2,508 310 1
Seasonal variations in serum pregnancy associated glycoproteins during early pregnancy in Aardi goats in central Saudi Arabia
Mohamed J Al-Hassan, Kamal A Al-Samawi
September 2017, 6(5):226-230
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215934  
Objective: To accurately detect pregnancy in local Aardi goats of Saudi Arabia before day 30 of pregnancy by using serum caprine pregnancy associated glycoproteins (caPAG) concentrations and to evaluate the effects of heat stress on early pregnancy and on caPAG concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant goats. Methods: This study was to confirm the reliability of our methods in different seasons of the year. A new protocol to evaluate and improve Aardi goats' reproductive performance was implemented during summer and winter months. A total of 60 healthy mature Aardi goats were used (30 and 30 in the summer and winter, respectively). All were synchronized using an ovsynch protocol and then naturally mated (NM) to mature tested bucks. Conception rates and caPAG were measured and pregnancy was verified by ultrasonography. Results: Regardless of season, however, on day 23 and 35 post-NM, caPAGs were higher in sera of pregnant (P<0.05) than in non-pregnant goats, while there was no difference in caPAG concentrations on day 15. On day 23 and 35 post-NM, serum caPAG concentrations were higher (P<0.001) in the pregnant winter group than in the pregnant summer group, while no differences were found in non-pregnant goats. Measuring serum caPAG concentrations proved to be easy and accurate in assessing early stages of pregnancy (as early as 23 days post-NM) during both summer and winter seasons. Conclusions: It can be concluded that pregnancy rates were not affected by seasonal differences. The modified ovsynch program can be advantageous and worthwhile for its ease of use. When we add the accuracy of caPAG tests, such a program will help in detecting pregnancies in Aardi goats as early as 23 days post-NM, regardless of the season.
  2,476 304 2
Effects of anestrus dog serum on superovulation in rats and mice
Hanieh Vaseghi, Asghar Mogheiseh, Mojtaba Kafi, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mohammad Hossein Nooranizadeh
September 2017, 6(5):197-201
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215929  
Objective: To study the effects of anestrus dog serum in rodents (contains high amount of FSH) compared with two common superovulatory programs. Methods: Rats (n=30) at diestrus phase were evenly divided into pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG) group (administrated with 30 IU PMSG, and 48 h later following by 25 IU hCG), recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) group (reducing dose every 12 h from 5 to 1 IU, then following by 25 IU hCG) and anestrus dog serum group (reducing dose every 12 h from 0.6 to 0.1 mL, then following by 25 IU of hCG). Mice (n=30) were also evenly divided into PMSG group (5 IU PMSG used at 13 pm, and 48 h later following by 5 IU of hCG), rFSH group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 2.5 to 0.5 IU, then following by 5 IU hCG) and anestrous dog serum group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 0.100 to 0.025 mL, then following by 5 IU hCG). Mice and rats placed with males for 24 h after last injection. Histology samples of ovaries were prepared and the numbers of corpus lutea were counted on day 14 after mating. Results: In mice, the differences among mean number of corpus lutea in all groups (P=0.01) and between FSH and dog serum group were significant (P=0.000 7). But no significant differences were found between the mean number of corpus lutea in dog serum and PMSG, or between FSH and PMSG groups. In rats, mean number of corpus lutea were significant differences among three groups (P=0.01), and between PMSG and dog serum groups (P=0.02). Conclusions: Superovulatory response in anestrus dog serum group is similar to PMSG group in mice, which is relatively similar to FSH in rats.
  2,462 235 -
CASE REPORT
A case report of prenatally detected achondrogenesis type II with an occipital cephalocele
Behnaz Moradi, Khadijeh Adabi, Mohamad Ali Kazemi, Farzaneh Fattahi Masrour
September 2017, 6(5):238-240
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215936  
Achondrogenesis is a very rare lethal skeletal disorder. Here we describe a case of prenatally diagnosed achondrogenesis type II in a 28 year-old woman at (17+4) wk. She had history of 5 first trimester missed abortions. The couple is consanguineous. Ultrasonography showed extreme micromelia, short neck and trunk, large head and prominent abdomen. Delayed ossification in sacral bones was detected and ossification of pubic rami was poor. There were associated large cystic hygroma, anasarca and also high occipital cephalocele. Posterior fossa was normal. Mild hypothelorism, depressed nasal bridge, low set ear and mild retrognathia were identified too. Amniocentesis result was compatible with a normal female fetus. Post mortem whole body radiography confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the second case report with association of cephalocele and achondrogenesis type II.
  2,381 190 -