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   2018| May  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 31, 2018

 
 
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REVIEWS
Role of preputial washing in reducing microbial load and improving bovine semen quality
Adil Rasool Paray, Mukesh Bhakat, Shabir Ahmad Lone, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Ranjana Sinha, Javid Ur Rahman, Zahid Bashir Khanday, Ziaullah Danish
May 2018, 7(3):97-102
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233570  
Quality semen production remains the main focus and objective of semen processing laboratories throughout the world. Bacterial and other microbial contaminants affect the semen quality and hence the fertility, and also lead to reproductive disorders as well as lower conception rates and increased embryonic mortality, abortion and other complications in females. Microbial contamination affects the semen adversely, by exerting direct spermicidal effect, formation of reactive oxygen species, toxin production, adherence with spermatozoa, deriving nutrients and oxygen from the medium and thus competing with spermatozoa for the factors of growth and normal functioning. Despite hygienic measures, several ubiquitous and opportunistic microbes find their ways into semen during collection, processing, and storage of semen, and survive even during freezing. Stringent sanitary precautions are therefore required at every step of collecting semen and its processing. Preputial cavity is considered as main source of semen contaminating microorganisms. Flushing the preputial cavity with normal saline or any suitable liquid combination with antimicrobial activity, prior to semen collection reduces the microbial load and thereby improves the semen quality.
  5,760 551 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of alcohol infusion of Cissus populnea root on testicular function and serum hormone of male Wistar rats
Tomilola D Olaolu, Damilare E Rotimi, Ayotunde P Olaolu
May 2018, 7(3):117-122
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233572  
Objective: To examine the effect of Cissus populnea root on testicular function of male Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty albino male Wistar rats [(100.0 ±25.5) g] were selected into four groups randomly. The control group were administered 0.20 mL of distilled water while the other groups received 0.05 mL, 0.10 mL, and 0.20 mL/kg body weight of ethanol infusion. Oral administration was done using oropharyngeal cannula once daily for 14 days. Animals were thereafter sacrificed on day 15. Data obtained from this study were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons, post-hoc Tukey HSD was subsequently used and values at P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There were significant increases in serum testosterone, testes-body weight ratio, luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, respectively, compared with those in control group. Similarly, increase in acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, protein, glycogen and cholesterol levels were more significant compared with those in control group. Conclusions: The findings of this study reveals enhanced secretions of the sex hormones and other indices at 0.05 mL/kg body weight administration of Cissus populnea root ethanol infusion. However, dosages exceeding 0.05 mL/kg body weight gradually depletes the level of reproductive indices assayed for in this current study. Therefore, caution must be taken when consuming ethanol infusion of Cissus populnea root above the dosages used in this current study.
  4,966 361 7
REVIEWS
Low density lipoprotein in cryopreservation of semen
P Peruma
May 2018, 7(3):103-116
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233571  
Artificial insemination made a predominant contribution towards the improvement of genetic potential and increased productivity in animal husbandry sectors. In frozen semen technology, about 50% of sperm died because of cryoinjury or cryodamage during the process of cryopreservation and thawing of the semen. These cryo-damages can be minimized by use of various cryoprotective agents or cold shock absorbers in the frozen semen technology. Of which, egg yolk (EY) is most primarily important in the extender preparation for various mammalian species for longer period and it works against the cold shock during the cryopreservation process due to the presence of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Further, EY contains substances other than LDL that affect the sperm quality parameters especially reduced motility and inhibit the respiration of sperm; therefore, there was heavy demand on replacement of the EY with the particular responsible substances (LDL) in the semen extender. Later on, various investigators tried to extract the LDL from the EY of hen and finally succeeded to extract the LDL from the EY of hen for semen preservation of various species. The concentration of LDL used in various species is varied and this may be due to the composition and concentration of phospholipids, cholesterol and its proportion in the sperm membrane. In bovine species, the concentration of LDL was standardized as 8% (w/v) on dry matter basis. This is equal to 20% EY used in conventional semen extender. As it is explained that the 20% EY contains 68% LDL (13.6 g) and on dry matter basis, it is approximately 60% (8.16 g). This calculation indicates 20% EY contains 8% LDL on dry matter basis. The LDL protects the sperm by various mechanisms to maintain the integrity of sperm membrane, which is explained in the present review. It was concluded that the investigation is still to be carried out to find out the exact roles of apoproteins and lipids of LDL and to indentify and isolate the detrimental substances presented in the whole EY.
  4,155 451 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antiandrogenic activity of Calotropis procera latex in rats
Abdelgader Binyamen Abdelgader, Adil Salim Elsheikh
May 2018, 7(3):129-135
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233574  
Objective: To determine the effects of Calotropis procera latex on pubertal traits of immature male Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 30 immature male Wistar rats aged 3 weeks old were grouped randomly into 5 groups: group A (control group) was offered distilled water as a placebo; group B was daily oral dosed with suspension of Calotropis procera latex at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, group C 10 mg/kg BW; group D 15 mg/kg BW and group E 20 mg/ kg BW. The rats were weighed daily to adjust the dose and record the BW changes, and the treatment continued for 4 weeks; thereafter, rats were sacrificed. Serum samples (n=30) were collected from all rats and kept frozen until assayed for reproductive hormones. Furthermore, the testes and epididymae were weighed; epididymal sperms were counted; sperm motility & abnormality were estimated; and histopathological sections of the testes were prepared. Results: The results of this study showed that oral dosing of immature male rats with Calotropis procera latex at doses rate 10 mg/kg BW significantly (P<0.05) reduced the growth rate, BW, testicular & epididymal weights, the level of most of reproductive hormones as well as the sperm traits examined; however, it significantly (P<0.05) augmented the abnormalities of spermatozoa and the seminiferous epithelium. Conclusions: Latex of Calotropis procera contains substances that have anti-androgenic activities and/or endocrine disrupting effects. If these substances are purified and identified, they can be used as male contraceptives.
  3,829 342 2
Effect of different concentration of fish oil in skim milk-egg yolk extenders on post- thawed semen qualities of Kalang swamp buffalo bull
Abdul Malik, A Jaelani, Neni Widaningsih, Gt Khairun Ni'mah, Raviani , Sakiman , N Sasongko
May 2018, 7(3):139-142
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233576  
Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil at different concentrations on post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffalo. Methods: A total of 4 Kalang swamp buffalo bulls with 3-5 years of age and weighed about 340-360 kg were slected. Semen was regularly collected from these buffalo bulls once a week by an artificial vagina. Fish oil was supplementary at the dosages of 0 mg (control), 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg to the extender (skim milk-egg yolk). Fresh, pre-freezing and frozen semen were thawed at 37 °C and evaluated for motility, viability, morphology, and plasma integrity of membrane. Results: The study results indicated that before freezing, supplementation of fish oil at the dose of 150 mg in the extender had significantly motility. And a significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in viability and motility of post-thawed semen at the dose of 150 mg fish oil, which was in difference with other treatment groups. Conclusions: Addition of 150 mg fish oil in the extender could be positive for the enhancement of the quality of post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffaloes.
  3,289 335 2
Improvement of cortical granules migration and in vitro embryo production of vitrified bovine oocyte by 9-cis retinoic acid
Mojtaba Rashedi, Ali Rooz Batavani, Reza Golam Najafi
May 2018, 7(3):123-128
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233573  
Objective: To reveal the effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) on cortical granules (CGs) migration and in vitro embryo production (IVP) rate in meiosis Π vitrified bovine oocyte. Methods: Following in vitro maturation (IVM) in a medium containing 5 nM of 9-cis-RA, 60 oocytes were vitrified and then thawed. Then, half of them were evaluated for CGs migration and the other half were used for in vitro fertilization and IVP (on day 3). In addition, the other 60 oocytes were considered as the control group, which did not receive RA in IVM medium. The data were presented to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test. Results: Results showed that IVP rate (4-8 cells embryos) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control group when RA had been added to IVM medium. Furthermore, the presence of RA in IVM medium improved the rate and mode of CGs migration so that the rate of oocytes that had completed CGs migration in the group, which had received RA, was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusions: This study shows that presence of RA in IVM medium enhances the developmental competence and CGs distribution of meiosis Π vitrified bovine oocyte. Therefore, adding RA in IVM medium can decrease the ultrastructural changes during vitrification and can improve the efficiency of bovine oocyte vitrification.
  2,881 307 2
Prediction of protein structure of novel protein (116 kDa) from human sperm membrane
Umie Lestari, Widodo , Sutiman Bambang Sumitro
May 2018, 7(3):136-138
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233575  
Objective: To predict the protein similarity, biological function and structure of 116 kDa protein that was isolated from human sperm membrane of acrosome by using in silico. Methods: Predictions for 116 kDa protein similarity was done through comparative analysis of its isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight to the UniProtKB/TrEMBL protein database. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was built using SWISS-MODEL. Results: The 116 kDa protein with pI 4.4 was expected to have similarities with CDH23 proteins that had pI 4.38, thus they likely had similar physical and biochemical properties. The predicted protein had an extracellular N-terminal that likely acted as a receptor, and showed cell recognition characteristic, playing a role in fertilization. Conclusions: The 116 kDa protein isolated from acrosome membrane has similarity on its biophysical character to the CDH23.
  2,612 258 -
CASE REPORT
Missed estradiol determination resulting in oocyte retrieval and embryo development following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation at early pregnancy: Case report
Maryam Eftekhar, Azam Agha-Rahimi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Marjan Omidi
May 2018, 7(3):143-144
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233577  
This paper is a case report on the success of oocyte retrieval and good quality embryo development following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation at early pregnancy. A 30-year-old patient underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist long protocol. On the day of oocyte collection, a 5-week gestational sac was observed by exact sonography monitoring. However, via ultrasound guided follicle puncture, 7 oocytes were collected. After intarcytoplasmic sperm injection, 3 developed good quality embryos were cryopreserved. Moreover, the natural pregnancy was continued and finally a healthy live birth was achieved. Despite physiological hormonal changes during pregnancy, the follicular growth occurred and followed by oocyte retrieval and embryo development, subsequently.
  2,501 225 -