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   2018| November  | Volume 7 | Issue 6  
    Online since November 30, 2018

 
 
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REVIEW
Uterine prolapse in buffaloes: A review
GN Purohit, Atul Shanker Arora, Tilok Gocher, Mitesh Gaur, Chandra Shekher Saraswat, Pankaj Mishra
November 2018, 7(6):241-247
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246341  
Uterine prolapse is an emergency postpartum problem occurring within 24 h of parturition and resulting in death or serious complications in unattended cases. Poor myometrial contractions during the post-partum period and traction during difficult births are two postulated etiologies and low serum calcium appear to be a significant risk factor for uterine prolapse in buffaloes. Shortly after eversion the uterus gets inflamed and edematous and shock may ensue in cases with excessive bleeding. Prompt replacement of prolapsed uterus with sufficient care assures good prognosis. The etiology, risk factors, clinical findings and approaches for therapy of uterine prolapse in buffaloes are mentioned in this review.
  13,253 727 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol benzoate in recovering spermatogenesis in tamoxifen-injured rats
Ali Olfati, Gholamali Moghaddam, Kaniaw Rafat Khafar, Ali Mojtahedin, Azad Abdolahzadeh
November 2018, 7(6):248-253
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246342  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol benzoate (EB) on the recovery of spermatogenesis, histology, sexual hormones levels and testicular gene expression in testes of tamoxifen-injured rats. Methods: Forty adult rats were divided into eight groups in a factorial arrangement of tamoxifen and hormonal treatments. Half of the groups orally received 0.6 mg/kg tamoxifen, and 30 d later tamoxifen and notamoxifen groups (controls) were paired and assigned into four hormonal treatments with daily intramuscular injections for 10 consecutive days: 1 mL saline (control); 7.5 IU FSH; 12 μg/kg EB; and 7.5 IU FSH+12 μg/kg EB. One day after the last treatment, spermatozoa were recovered from epididymis, blood was processed for sex hormones concentration (testosterone, FSH and luteinizing hormone) and testes were processed for histology and RNA extraction for expression of genes related to apoptosis [caspase 3, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)]. Results: Control groups did not show significant changes in most parameters, but hormonal treatments decreased caspase 3 and iNOS and increased Bcl-2 expression. Tamoxifen significantly decreased counts, motility and viability of spermatozoa, Bcl-2 expression and sex hormones. It increased intertubular space, caspase 3 and iNOS expression, and induced seminiferous tubular atrophy. The hormonal treatments reverted spermatogenesis, hormonal levels and histology compared with controls, however not attaining the same sperm quality as controls. Conclusions: Tamoxifen is clearly detrimental to spermatogenesis and overall testicular structure and function, whereas hormonal therapy with FSH and EB can improve testicular function and revert tamoxifen-induced azoospermia.
  2,504 329 2
Comparison of Bishop score and cervical length measurement through transvaginal ultrasound as prediction against labor induction
Finianty Raynelda, Efendi Lukas, Sriwijaya Qadar, Maisuri T Chalid
November 2018, 7(6):280-284
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246348  
Objective: To compare the Bishop score and cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound concerned with prediction over the success of labor induction. Methods: This cross-sectional observational analytical study was conducted from May 2017 to October 2017 at several teaching hospitals of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine Hasanuddin University of Makassar, India. There were 110 samples of pregnant women undergoing labor induction process including 79 samples of successful induction and 31 samples of induction failure. The data analysis used Pearson Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression to see the effect of Bishop score and measurement of cervical length with successful induction of labor. Results: Number of samples with successful labor induction with Bishop score ⩾3 was 25 (31.6%) and Bishop score was 54 (68.4%), with rate ratio=3.714 and P=0.000. With measurement of cervical length (cut-off point 2.98 cm), number of samples with successful labor induction with cervical length ⩽2.98 cm was 12 (15.2%) and cervical length >2.98 cm was 67 (84.8%), with rate ratio=3.124 and P=0.000. Multivahate analysis of logistic regression was found to be more influential in the predicted success of labor induction (P=0.014 with Bishop score <3, odds ratio=1.000 and Bishop score ⩾3, odds ratio=3.779. Conclusions: Bishop score is better in predicting the success of labor induction compared to the measurement of cervical length through transvaginal ultrasound.
  2,442 277 1
Impact of replacing egg yolk with lecithin on quality of pre-freeze and post-thaw buffalo spermatozoa
Asmaa A Mostafa, Mohamed S El-Belely, Sayed T Ismail, Reda I El-Sheshtawy, Mohamed I Shahba
November 2018, 7(6):254-260
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246343  
Objective: To estimate the result of egg yolk replacement with alternative cryopreservatives such as plant-derived lecithin from soybean on sperm quality parameters pre and post freezing in buffalo bulls. Methods: The control cryopreservation extender was tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TCFYG) diluent. Semen samples were extended gradually 1:10 with TCFYG control extender and tris-citric acid-fructose-glycerol (TCFG) extender plus variable concentrations of soybean lecithin (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0%) to ensure 60 million active spermatozoa/mL of the extended semen. The diluted semen samples were refrigerated slowly (roughly for 2 h) up to 5 °C and equilibrated for 2 h. Semen was filled into 0.25 mL polyvinyl French straws (IMV, France). After equilibration period, the straws were placed horizontally on a rack and frozen in a vapor 4 cm above liquid nitrogen for 10 min and were then dipped stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C. Results: The respective overall percentages of forward motile spermatozoa, live spermatozoa, morphologically normal spermatozoa, acrosome integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity observed primarily in fresh semen, after equilibration (pre-freeze stage) and post freezing (post-thaw stage) in TCFYG (control) extended semen declined progressively and statically (P<0.01) during these periods of study. Pre-freezing stage: replacement of egg yolk into TCFG with soybean lecithin at concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% significantly (P<0.01) ameliorated the maintenance of (motility, viability, acrosome and membrane integrity %), meanwhile it had significantly (P<0.01) reduced the abnormality % of spermatozoa to the lowest value compared to control TCFYG and to some other concentrations in use. Post-thaw stage: the replacement of egg yolk with 1.0% soybean lecithin (SL) showed significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage of sperm progressive motility compared to 1.5% SL and TCFYG control. These values were significantly (P<0.01) higher than 0.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% SL. The post thawing live sperm percentage mean values were significantly (P<0.01) higher in 1.0% SL and 1.5% SL compared to control. These values were significantly (P<0.01) higher than in 0.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% SL. The mean values of post-thaw morphological normal sperm percentage did not differ between 1.0% SL and control groups but significantly (P<0.01) higher than 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% SL. The respective percentage mean values of post-thaw sperm with head, mid-piece and tail abnormalities were significantly (P<0.01) lower in 1.0% SL than all other SL concentrations. Concerning the post-thaw percentages of acrosome and sperm membrane integrity, the respective mean values were significantly (P<0.01) higher in 1.0% SL and 1.5% SL as compared to control. Mean values of both parameters in the 0.5% SL were intermediate between 1.0% and 1.5% SL versus control groups. The previously mentioned mean values in acrosome/membrane integrity were significantly (P<0.01) higher than 2.0% SL, 2.5% SL and 3.0% SL. Conclusions: Lecithin-based diluent can be a potent proper alternative extender for preservation of spermatozoa during pre- and post-freezing process. SL 1.5% extenders have supplied an optimal environment and condition for ameliorating the quality of pre-freezing and post-thaw buffalo spermatozoa by means of improved motility, viability, functional acrosome, sperm membrane integrity and morphologically normal spermatozoa.
  2,297 319 2
Inhibitory effect of genistein on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through suppressing NF-κB activity in peritoneum of murine model of endometriosis
Dwi Yuliawati, Karyono Mintaroem, Sutrisno Sutrisno
November 2018, 7(6):261-265
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246344  
Objective: To analyze the inhibitory effect of genistein on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Methods: A total of 36 female mice were divided into six groups (n=6 in each group): control group (untreated mice), endometriosis mice group, and endometriosis mice groups administered with genistein at different doses (1.30 mg/day; 1.95 mg/day; 2.60 mg/day; and 3.25 mg/day). The genistein treatment was performed for 14 d. The expressions of NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9 on the endometriosis lesions were analyzed by the immunohistochemical technique. Results: The activity of NF-κB in the endometriosis group increased significantly than that of the control group (P<0.05). The expression of MMP-2 or MMP-9 in the endometriosis group increased significantly than that of the control group (P<0.05). Administration of genistein at different doses was capable of significantly reducing the activity of NF-κB compared to that of the endometriosis group (P<0.05), reaching the level comparable to that of the control group at the third highest dose (P>0.05). The four doses of genistein administration were capable of significantly reducing the expression of MMP-2 compared to that of the endometriosis group (P<0.05), reaching an expression comparable to that of the control group for the highest dose (P>0.05). Administration of genistein at different doses was capable of significantly reducing the expression of MMP-9 compared to that of the endometriosis group (P<0.05), reaching the level comparable to that of the control group at the highest dose (P>0.05). Conclusions: Genistein suppresses the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through suppressing NF-κB activity in the peritoneum of murine model of endometriosis.
  2,341 269 2
Effects of Salacia lehmbachii ethanol root bark extract on estrous cycle and sex hormones of female albino rats
Grace A Essiet, Godwin C Akuodor, Daniel OJ Aja, Mathew O Nwokike, Desmond O Eke, Anuli N Chukwumobi
November 2018, 7(6):274-279
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246347  
Objective: To evaluate the effect of Salacia lehmbachii (S. lehmbachii) ethanol root bark extract on estrous cycle and sex hormones in female rats. Methods: Forty-eight virgin rats with regular 4-day cycle were grouped into four and each group was further subdivided into ‘a’ and ‘b’ (n=6). Each group was orally treated for 28 days with 2 mL of distilled water (control), ethanol root bark extract of S. lehmbachii in doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/body weight (groups 2, 3, 4, respectively). Estrous cycle was determined daily using the vaginal smear method. Rats in ‘a’ subgroups were weighed and sacrificed on the 29th day, and blood was collected for serum generation which was used for hormonal assay and sex organs were removed and weighed. Rats in ‘b’ subgroups were discontinued from treatment for 2 weeks and the parameters above were reassessed. Results: The mean length of estrous cycle and duration of diestrous of treated rats were prolonged dose dependently compared to control. The increase was significant (P<0.05) at 500 and 750 mg/kg. The other estrous phases were shortened in the same pattern. Relative weights of sex organs were reduced significantly (P<0.05) at the highest dose. Sex hormones levels were significantly (P<0.05) reduced compared to control. The above changes reverted towards the control values two weeks post treatments. Conclusions: Ethanol root bark extract of S. lehmbachii (high doses) has antifertility effect in female rats as it prolongs the estrous and diestrous cycle, and reduces serum sex hormones levels. The observed alterations were reversible.
  2,240 244 -
Effect of paclitaxel and resveratrol on New Zealand rabbit semen
Caner Ozturk, Mehmet Bozkurt Ataman
November 2018, 7(6):266-269
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246345  
Objective: To examine the effects of paclitaxel and resveratrol on rabbit semen. Methods: This study consisted of four groups: control group (40 mL saline), paclitaxel group (5 mg/kg paclitaxel), resveratrol group (4 mg/kg resveratrol) and paclitaxel+resveratrol group (5 mg/kg paclitaxel+4 mg/kg resveratrol). Administrations were i.v. (in 40 mL saline) and continued 8 weeks. Sperm motility was evaluated using phase-contrast microscopy. Mitochondrial activity, membrane and acrosome integrity were performed by fluorescence staining. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione and antioxidant potential levels were determined by spectrophotometry. Results: Paclitaxel decreased the sperm motility and fluorescence staining results compared to the control (P<0.05). The paclitaxel and resveratrol group showed better results of the same parameters compared to the paclitaxel group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, antioxidant potential and fertility results (P>0.05). Results of this study showed that paclitaxel decreased semen parameters and resveratrol had a protective effect on these parameters. Conclusions: Paclitaxel has negative effects on spermatological indicators and biochemical assays, while resveratrol prevents these negative effects of paclitaxel.
  2,077 249 -
Effect of buffalo bull breeds on developmental competence and vitrification of in-vitro produced embryos
Walid T.M. Soliman, Al-Shimaa Al-H.H. El-Naby, Karima Gh.M. Mahmoud, Ahmed R.M. El-Khawagah, Mohamed M.M. Kandiel, Mahmoud E.A. Abouel-Roos, Alaa E Abdel-Ghaffar, AbdEl Salam I. El Azab
November 2018, 7(6):270-273
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246346  
Objective: To assess effect of buffalo bull breed on the development and cryotolerence of the in vitro produced embryos. Methods: Three types of frozen semen were adopted; Egyptian, Italian and cross-bred (Egyptian-Italian) breeds were used for in-vitro fertilization and vitrification of their embryos. Oocytes were collected from buffalo ovaries and matured in vitro for 24 h, then they were fertilized using the three semen breeds. The produced embryos of morula and blastocysts were vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide then evaluated for their viability after warming. Results: The cleavage and blastocysts rates significantly declined in oocytes fertilized by Egyptian (P<0.01) than in Italian (P<0.05) and crossbred (P<0.05) frozen semen. After embryo vitrification, there were no significant differences among the three breeds in the percentages of morphologically viable embryos evaluated directly after warming and at 24 h post-culture. Conclusions: The in vitro fertilization response to frozen-thawed semen varies between breeds; however, the resistance of produced embryos to the damage effect of vitrification does not vary.
  1,776 188 -