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   2021| October  | Volume 10 | Issue 5  
    Online since October 5, 2021

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Male infertility: A scoping review of prevalence, causes and treatments
Kirati M Shah, Kanan G Gamit, Manan A Raval, Niraj Y Vyas
October 2021, 10(5):195-202
Male factor infertility has now become a major health disorder, affecting human reproduction and developing worldwide as a serious medical and social issue. It causes trauma, emotional instability, and mental stress in the affected couples. In nearly half of the analyzed cases, male-associated factors are the major contributors. The present review outlines a wide range of factors responsible for male infertility. We performed an in-depth literature review of the global index of infertility by using data from World Health Organization’s website, Elsevier’s, PubMed and Scopus databases as well as journals. The quality and quantity of semen, male hormonal imbalance, genetic deterioration, and reactive oxygen species are the fundamental causes of male factor infertility. In addition, air quality, water quality, noise pollution, lifestyle changes, improper diet consumption, malnutrition, exposure to chemicals and toxins, smoking habits, drug abuses, major diseases, and medications are also contributors to infertility issues that can temporarily or permanently influence male reproductive system. We also reviewed the prevalence of male infertility in different countries.
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Excess iodine supplementation aggravates the toxic effects induced by perchlorate on the male reproductive system in rats
Arijit Chakraborty
October 2021, 10(5):215-224
Objective: To investigate the toxicity of excess iodine and perchlorate co-exposure on male reproductive system in rats. Methods: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 received no treatment and served as the control group. Group 2 received perchlorate alone (130 mg/kg body weight), and group 3 received perchlorate (130 mg/kg body weight) plus excess iodine (0.7 mg potassium iodine/100 g body weight) for 45 days. Urinary perchlorate and iodine excretion pattern, testicular iodine concentration, serum testosterone levels, epididymal sperm count, key enzymes of steroidogenic pathway, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including total antioxidant profiles in testis with electron microscopic ultrastructure analysis of spermatozoa were evaluated. Results: Co-exposure of perchlorate and excess iodine reduced their excretion pattern, reflecting accumulation with reactive oxygen species generation. It was accompanied by higher lipid peroxidation level with imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status, inhibiting the activities of Δ5 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17 β-HSD rate limiting enzyme activities, and causing reduced synthesis of testosterone, parallel to reduction in testicular and accessory sex organs weight, epididymal sperm-count with deformed ultrastructure of sperm. Perchlorate alone was not a reproductive toxicant; however, in combination with excess-iodine, acute effects were noticed, resulting in a severe deterioration of testicular and spermatozoal structure and function. Conclusions: This study provides a novel insight on the augmentation of the relatively moderate repro-toxic effects of perchlorate to a more severe form in presence of excess iodine on male reproductive physiology, which justifies further investigations.
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Yq AZF microdeletions in male infertility: An update on the phenotypic spectrum, epidemiology and diagnostics
Awanish Jaiswal, Anurag Pandey, Mamta Tiwari, Akhtar Ali, Rohit Sharma
October 2021, 10(5):203-214
According to the latest data, globally 15% of couples have infertility and male infertility contributes to 10% of all cases. Infertility can be caused by certain biological changes in the gonads and the reproductive system like azoospermia, oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratozoospermia and hypospermatogenesis. Genetic causes of azoospermia include chromosomal abnormalities, Y chromosome microdeletions and deletion or other mutations of Y-linked genes. The maximum number of the genes are located in the azoospermia factor region of the long arm (Yq) of the Y chromosome. Y chromosome microdeletion is known as the second major genetic cause of spermatogenetic failure. This article aims to review the latest updates on the involvement of Yq microdeletions in male infertility. The diagnostics, prevalence and phenotypic spectrum related to Yq gene microdeletions are discussed.
  2,052 194 -
Ameliorative effect of Punica granatum on sperm parameters in rats exposed to mobile radioelectromagnetic radiation
Anjaneyababu Naik Banavath, Sridevi Nangali Srinivasa
October 2021, 10(5):225-231
Objective: To study the effect of mobile emitted radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on sperm parameters (sperm count, viability, motility, progressivity, and morphology) and ameliorative effect of pomegranate juice in rats. Methods: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=6 in each group). Group I was neither exposed to RF-EMR nor given pomegranate juice, group II, III and IV were exposed to mobile emitted RF-EMR for 60 min/day for 90 days. After 90-day exposure to RF-EMR, group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for 90 days (1 mL/day) and group IV was allowed to recover for 90 days without supplementation of pomegranate juice. Group V was supplemented with pomegranate juice for 90 days without exposure to RF-EMR. At the end of intervention, epididymal sperm parameters (sperm count, viability, motility, progressivity, and morphology) were measured. Results: The microscopic examination of sperm parameters such as sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility, progressivity were significantly decreased in group II (the mobile RF-EMR group) compared to group I (the control group) (P<0.05). In addition, sperm morphology was also significantly altered (abnormal) in group II compared to group I (P<0.05). However, the sperm parameters including sperm morphology were significantly altered in group III (mobile RF-EMR + pomegranate juice) compared to group II (P<0.05). The sperm parameters including sperm morphology were not significantly altered in group IV (the mobile RF-EMR recovery group) compared to group II (P>0.05). The sperm parameters were non-significantly increased in group V (the pomegranate juice group) compared to group I (P>0.05). Conclusions: Mobile RF-EMR exposure reduces the sperm parameters, which, however, can be reversed by treatment with pomegranate juice, indicating that pomegranate juice can be used as a nutritional supplement to improve sperm quality.
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In-vitro effect of Peganum harmala total alkaloids on spermatozoa quality and oxidative stress of epididymal ram semen
Hanane Derbak, Mohamed Moussaoui, Amine Benberkane, Abdelhanine Ayad
October 2021, 10(5):232-238
Objective: To determine the in-vitro effect of the total alkaloid extract of Peganum (P.) harmala seeds on ram epididymal sperm. Methods: Semen was divided into six groups according to the following concentrations of the P. harmala total alkaloids: 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL, and the control group. The samples were incubated at ambient temperature (21 °C-24 °C) for 24 h, and analyzed in terms of motility, membrane integrity, and oxidative status. Results: The sperm kinematic parameters, i.e. straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, were significantly higher when treated with P. harmala at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μg/mL compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addtion, the highest amplitude of the lateral head displacement value was found in the groups treated with concentrations 1 and 5 μg/mL of P. harmala compared to the control group (P<0.05). Total and progressive motilities showed that the extracts at 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL exhibited a high percentage after 24 h of incubation. The effect of P. harmala extracts on the membrane integrity of ram epididymal sperm was concentration-dependent and significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05). Non-significantly lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed after 24 h of incubation of ram epididymal sperm treated with concentrations 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL of P. harmala extracts compared to the control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Low concentrations (1-10 μg/mL) of P. harmala extracts stimulate sperm motility, preserve membrane integrity and protect ram spermatozoa from lipid peroxidation.
  1,251 159 -
Syngamy, pronucleus, pronuclear breakdown and zygote
Mário Sousa, Jan Tesarik
October 2021, 10(5):239-240
  860 99 -