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   2022| May  | Volume 11 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 31, 2022

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Oxidative stress and female reproductive disorder: A review
Kalaivani Manokaran, Pavithra Bhat, Deepak Nayak, Ravisankar Baskaran, Prabu Paramasivam, Shiek Fareeth Ahmed, Keerthi Priya, Karkala Sreedhara Ranganath Pai, Vignesh E Balaji
May 2022, 11(3):107-116
Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between the body’s pro-oxidants and antioxidants. Recently, oxidative stress has been proven a contributing factor to many female reproductive disorders including infertility, preeclampsia, endometriosis and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Herein, we review the mechanistic role of oxidative stress in inducing the most common female reproductive disorders. The current review has also highlighted the protective role of vitamin C, necessary for certain female reproductive hormone secretion by the antral follicle and corpus luteum and also essential for collagen production in ovarian tissue remodeling after ovulation, in alleviating oxidative stress and thus improving female reproductive outcomes.
  1,034 157 -
Investigation of FOXP3 (rs3761548) polymorphism with the risk of preeclampsia and recurrent spontaneous abortion: A systemic review and meta-analysis
Govinda Sri Varshini, Sivakumar Harshini, Muhammed Ali Siham, Govindaraj Krishnamurthy Tejaswini, Yasam Santhosh Kumar, Langeswaran Kulanthaivel, Gowtham Kumar Subbaraj
May 2022, 11(3):117-124
Objective: To investigate the association between forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) (rs3761548) polymorphism and the risk of preeclampsia and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: Literature on the association of FOXP3 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to preeclampsia and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion was retrieved by searching databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Embase from 2000 to 2021. The association measure was analyzed using an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). All the statistical analyses were executed using RevMan 5.4 software. Results: In the present meta-analysis, 11 articles were analyzed. The pooled results showed no association between FOXP3 gene polymorphism (rs3761548) and preeclampsia risk in allelic, recessive, dominant and over dominant contrast models. FOXP3 gene polymorphism (rs3761548) showed an association with recurrent abortion in allelic, recessive and dominant models (OR 1.85, CI 1.59-2.14; OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.56-2.62; OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.50-4.83, respectively), while no association in the over dominant contrast model (OR 1.35, CI 0.87-2.10). Conclusions: In the present study, FOXP3 gene (rs3761548) polymorphism is associated with risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion but not preeclampsia. However, larger sample size and multiracial studies are needed in the future to confirm the findings.
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Antioxidant potential of pentoxifylline on spermatozoa of small ruminants
Mazen Alomar
May 2022, 11(3):138-145
Objective: To investigate antioxidant potential of pentoxifylline on spermatozoa of small ruminants including rams and bucks. Methods: The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in ram and buck spermatozoa incubated with 0 (control), 4 and 8 mM of pentoxifylline were measured after 45-min incubation. Then, the motility parameters of ram and buck spermatozoa incubated with 0 (control), 1 mM of H2O2, 1 mM of H2O2 plus 4 mM of pentoxifylline, and 1 mM of H2O2 plus 8 mM of pentoxifylline were analysed. H2O2 was estimated using a fluorometric assay and spermatozoa motility characteristics were analyzed using computer aided sperm analyzer. Results: Pentoxifylline significantly decreased the levels of H2O2 produced from both ram and buck spermatozoa (P<0.05), and significant lower rates of H2O2 formation were noted when 8 mM of pentoxifylline was added (P<0.05). The values of all sperm motility parameters for the two species significantly decreased after incubation with H2O2 (P<0.05). In contrast, when the spermatozoa were incubated with both H2O2 and two concentrations of pentoxifylline, the motility values rose significantly compared to those incubated with H2O2 alone (P<0.05). For both ram and buck sperm samples, the rapid and static subpopulation motility parameters were the most affected categories by pentoxifylline addition compared to the medium and slow categories. Conclusions: Pentoxifylline possesses an antioxidant capacity proved by its ability of reducing H2O2 levels as well as by increasing motility values of stressed spermatozoa. Therefore, pentoxifylline could be recommended as antioxidant additive for spermatozoa of small ruminants under stress conditions.
  804 96 -
Placental pathologies and fetal outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19: A retrospective study
Soheila Sarmadi, Ara Omranipour, Elham Mirzaian, Roghayyeh Ahangari, Zahra Yazdi, Azadeh Asgarian, Monireh Mirzaie
May 2022, 11(3):132-137
Objective: To describe histopathologic findings in the placentas in women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and undergoing delivery between March 2020 and January 2022, were included. The patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the placentas after delivery were sent for histopathologic evaluation based on the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group Consensus Statement and assessed by two pathologists. Results: Our results showed that maternal vascular malperfusion was the most common and was present in 17 cases (44.7%). These features included accelerated villous maturation (36.8%) distal villous hypoplasia (5.3%), placental infarction (5.3%) and intervillous fibrin deposition (10.5%). Other pathologic findings included focal calcification (10.5%), intravillous congestion and hemorrhage (10.5%), sub-chorionic hemorrhage (5.3%), acute villitis, chronic histiocytic intervillositis and delayed villous maturation each in one case (2.6%). Twelve out of 38 cases showed no significant pathologic changes. Fetal outcomes included neonatal intensive care unit admission rate of 13.2%, dyspnea 31.6%, newborn’s anosmia 7.9%, intrauterine fetal demise 2.6%, asphyxia 2.6% and neonate COVID infection 5.3%. Conclusions: Microvasculopathy, as a sign of maternal vascular malperfusion, is a common finding in placentas from SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women in the present study. Further studies with larger sample sizes and comparative studies between COVID-19 positive and negative, as well as information from patient follow-up are suggested.
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Sperm DNA fragmentation does not affect the clinical outcomes in the cumulative transfers of an ICSI cycle along with blastocyst transfers in couples with normozoospermic male patients
Deepthi Repalle, KV Saritha, Shilpa Bhandari
May 2022, 11(3):125-131
Objective: To know whether sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) affects the clinical outcomes in the cumulative transfers of an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle along with blastocyst transfers in couples with normozoospermic males. Methods: The study included 252 couples who underwent their first ICSI cycles along with blastocyst transfer and whose male partner semen samples were normozoospermic according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. All the couples were classified into two groups based on the SDF: the low SDF group (SDF≤30%, n=162) and the high SDF group (SDF>30%, n=90). Clinical as well as laboratory outcomes were correlated between the two groups. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed on the post-wash semen samples by acridine orange test. The main outcome measures were the live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Results: A significant decrease in the live birth rates was observed in the high SDF group compared to the low SDF group in fresh embryo transfer cycles (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical outcomes either in the frozen embryo transfer cycles or in the overall cumulative transfer cycles (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed in the laboratory outcomes between the two SDF groups. A remarkable decrease in sperm motility was observed in the high SDF group compared to the low SDF group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Sperm DNA fragmentation does not affect the clinical outcomes in the cumulative transfers of an ICSI cycle along with blastocyst transfers in couples with normozoospermic males.
  606 111 -
Sjögren's syndrome and reproductive outcomes
Greeshma Sai Sree Nayudu, Arjun Nambiar, Khayati Moudgil
May 2022, 11(3):105-106
  571 92 -
Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin enriched extenders on the quality of prefrozen and frozen buffalo semen
Asmaa A Mostafa, Mohamed S El-Belely, Sayed T Ismail, Reda I El-Sheshtawy, Mohamed I Shahba
May 2022, 11(3):146-152
Objective: To investigate the effects of non-permeable cryoprotectant, cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin, when added at different concentrations into cooled and frozen-thawed semen extended with Tris-citrate-fructose egg yolk glycerol and lecithin-based extenders. Methods: A total of 40 ejaculates from four buffalo bulls were collected using artificial vagina. Ejaculates were extended with one of Tris-citrate-fructose egg yolk glycerol and lecithin-based extenders which contained different concentrations [0 (control), 0.75, 1.50, 2.25 and 3.00 mg/mL] of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin. The extended semen samples were cooled to 5 °C and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 mL ministraws before being stored in liquid nitrogen pending its evaluation. Sperm motility, live sperm, normal sperm morphology, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome morphology were measured. Results: Supplementation of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin improved progressive motility, viability, morphology and acrosome as well as plasma membrane integrities at 1.50-2.25 mg/mL depending upon types of used extenders and stages of pre- and post-freezing process (P<0.01). The best concentration was 1.50 mg/mL at pre-freeze stage and 2.25 mg/mL at post- freezing. However, greater concentration (3.00 mg/mL) of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin had a detrimental effect compared to the control group with the two evaluated extenders (P<0.01). Conclusions: Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin supplementation at 1.50-2.25 mg/mL concentration could improve pre-frozen and post-thawed buffalo sperm quality. The most suitable concentration is 1.50 mg/mL at pre-freeze stage and 2.25 mg/mL at post-freezing.
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