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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Photomicrographs showing effects of 30-day oral administration of therapeutic dose equivalent levels of tramadol on testis of Wistar rats (H & E, magnification χ100). A (Group 1, the control group): the normal lumen of seminiferous tubules (LT) with spermagonium (SG), other spermatogenic cells (SC) and Leydig cell (LC). B (Group 2, received 1.25 mg/kg/day tramadol): histology characterized with atrophied seminiferous tubules (AT). C (Group 3, received 2.50 mg/kg/day tramadol): shows histology characterized with atrophied seminiferous tubules (AT). D (Group 4, received 5.00 mg/kg/day tramadol): disintegrated tissue architecture (DA). E (Group 5, received 1.25 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): normal histology of testis like the control group. F (Group 6, received 2.50 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): normal histology of testis like the control group. G (Group 7, received 5.00 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): shows reduced spermatozoa in tubular lumen (RT).

Figure 2: Photomicrographs showing effects of 30-day oral administration of therapeutic dose equivalent levels of tramadol on testis of Wistar rats (H & E, magnification χ100). A (Group 1, the control group): the normal lumen of seminiferous tubules (LT) with spermagonium (SG), other spermatogenic cells (SC) and Leydig cell (LC). B (Group 2, received 1.25 mg/kg/day tramadol): histology characterized with atrophied seminiferous tubules (AT). C (Group 3, received 2.50 mg/kg/day tramadol): shows histology characterized with atrophied seminiferous tubules (AT). D (Group 4, received 5.00 mg/kg/day tramadol): disintegrated tissue architecture (DA). E (Group 5, received 1.25 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): normal histology of testis like the control group. F (Group 6, received 2.50 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): normal histology of testis like the control group. G (Group 7, received 5.00 mg/kg/day tramadol and allowed to recover for 30 days): shows reduced spermatozoa in tubular lumen (RT).